Dynamic Pumps: Understanding Their Types and Applications

by | Nov 13, 2023

Dynamic Pumps

A pump is a device that moves fluid and semi-solid material from one place to another using mechanical energy, which is generated by converting electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Many types of pumps use different methods to suit their application.

Pumps are inseparable from all industries, from oil & gas to dairy; just name the industry, and pumps have extensive usage. Pumps are compulsorily used in water coolers and borewells in many homes. Our article, Types of Water, covers all types of pumps comprehensively.

In this article, we will present a detailed analysis of Dynamic Pumps. So, let’s jump straight into it.

What is a Dynamic Pump?

Dynamic pump directly uses mechanical energy to move fluids. This movement results from action by a propeller or an impeller, which are typical components of Dynamic pumps. 

These pumps are widely used across various industries due to their simplicity, reliability, and ease of maintenance. They rely on principles of centrifugal force to move the fluid through the pump. 

Centrifugal pumps are a common type of dynamic pump. They feature a rotating impeller that accelerates the fluid radially outward. This creates a flow with both pressure and velocity.

Dynamic pumps can handle large volumes of fluid at low pressures. They are often used in applications where a steady flow is required.

The main difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is that dynamic pumps directly employ mechanical energy to move fluids, but positive displacement pumps use air or water pressure to cause fluid movement.

What are the Different Types of Pumps?

There are broadly two different types of pumps you’ll find in the market:

1. Dynamic Pumps

Dynamic pumps directly use mechanical energy to move fluids. This movement results from action by a propeller or an impeller, which are typical components of Dynamic pumps.

2. Positive Displacement Pumps

Positive displacement pumps use air or water pressure to cause fluid movement. These pumps come in various types, including reciprocating and rotary pumps.

Various factors determining the application of dynamic pumps or positive displacement pumps are:

1. Fluid Nature

Dynamic pumps can only pump thinner and watery fluids, while positive displacement pumps are better for thick, viscous and sensitive fluids with solid content.

2. Flow Rate

Dynamic pumps provide a higher flow rate, so they are the obvious choice if a higher output is desired.

3. Efficiency

Dynamic pumps are more efficient at converting input energy into fluid movement for high-flow, low-pressure applications. Positive displacement pumps are generally more efficient for low-flow, high-pressure applications.

4. Temperature

Positive displacement pumps can handle extreme temperatures, whereas dynamic pumps fail if exposed to extreme temperatures. 

5. Maintenance

Positive displacement pumps are more reliable and require less maintenance for high-viscosity or abrasive fluids applications. 

Dynamic pumps are less susceptible to damage from particulate matter and can operate continuously without overheating. They require less frequent maintenance for low-viscosity fluids.

6. Cost

The initial cost of dynamic pumps is much less than positive displacement pumps. However, the operating cost of dynamic pumps is much higher than the latter.

7. Noise Factor

Dynamic pumps produce less vibration and noise compared to most positive displacement pumps.

What are the Types of Dynamic Pumps?

There are 5 types of Dynamic Pumps, these are:

1. Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are the most widely used dynamic pumps. They rely on the principle of centrifugal force to transport liquids and gases.

Centrifugal pumps are industry favourites for various reasons: 

  1. Abrasive Solution Compatibility
  2. Mixing Potential
  3. Simple Engineering
  4. High Flow Rate Capability.

Typical applications of centrifugal pumps include:

  1. Water Pumping Sewage
  2. Transport Agriculture
  3. Petroleum
  4. Petrochemical Pumping. 

2. Vertical Centrifugal Pumps

A vertical centrifugal pump is a vertical pump in a vertical direction. It operates on the same centrifugal force principle but has a vertical orientation. 

Vertical centrifugal pumps use a unique shaft and bearing support configuration. This allows the pump casing to hang in the fluid pit while the bearings are outside. 

One common application for vertical centrifugal pumps is groundwater extraction from deep wells. 

They also have applications in:

  1. Industrial Settings
  2. Wastewater Treatment Plants
  3. Cooling Systems with Space Constraints

3. Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps

Horizontal centrifugal pumps are dynamic pumps used to transfer fluids in various industries. They also operate on the principle of centrifugal force. 

Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps use a horizontal impeller to move liquids and gases.

Horizontal centrifugal pumps are very versatile, easy to maintain, and reliable. 

The suitable applications of Horizontal centrifugal pumps include: 

  1. Water Supply
  2. Wastewater Treatment
  3. Irrigation
  4. Industrial Processes

These pumps can efficiently move large volumes of fluid at relatively low pressures. Their horizontal orientation allows for straightforward installation and maintenance.

This makes them a preferred choice for many fluid transfer operations across industries.

4. Submersible Pumps

Horizontal submersible pumps are specialised centrifugal pumps designed for underwater applications. They are one of the most common types of water pumps. Unlike traditional horizontal pumps, these pumps are submerged in their transport fluid. 

Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface rather than relying upon atmospheric pressure. They use pressurised fluid from the surface to drive a hydraulic motor downhole.

The main applications of submersible pumps are:

  1. Draining Flooded Areas
  2. Emptying Tanks or reservoirs
  3. Managing Wastewater
  4. Air Coolers

5. Fire Hydrant Pumps

The fire hydrant pump system, fire pump, hydrant booster, or fire water pump is more than just a pump. 

It is a single centrifugal pump alongside essential components like a control panel. It uses a diesel or electric motor to ensure reliability in various situations. 

A fire pump is critical in supplying water to a fire sprinkler system. If the pressure in the risers and standpipes of the system falls to a certain level, the pump activates. This results in high-pressure delivery of water.

Selecting the Right Dynamic Pump for Your Application:

Now that we know dynamic pumps and their types in detail let us discuss which dynamic pump best suits your application.

Various factors determining the application of different types of dynamic pumps are:

1. Flow Rate: 

Centrifugal pumps, whether vertical or horizontal, are great for high-flow applications. Submersible pumps are suitable for lower flow rates.

2. Pressure: 

Centrifugal pumps generate moderate to high pressures. Fire hydrant pumps are specifically designed for high-pressure applications, such as firefighting. Submersible pumps generate low and steady pressure.

3. Fluid Properties:

Centrifugal pumps are better for low-viscosity fluids with minimal or no solid content. Submersible pumps can handle solids without clogging.  Hence, they are used for applications with solid-laden fluids, like wastewater or slurry.

4. Location:

Horizontal and vertical centrifugal pumps are typically installed above ground, while submersible pumps are submerged in the fluid. The choice depends on the installation site and space availability.

5. Operating Environment:

Submersible pumps operate underwater and have a sealed body. They are suitable for applications where the pump will be submerged.

Fire hydrant pumps are ideal for the outdoor installation and operation of fire systems.

6. Noise and Vibration:

The noise and vibration a pump produces can be significant in some applications. Submersible pumps are quieter because they are submerged. Centrifugal may generate more noise and vibration, especially if not properly isolated.

7. Energy Efficiency:

Centrifugal pumps are generally more energy-efficient for high-flow, low-pressure applications. Submersible pumps are often more efficient for certain low-flow, high-pressure applications.

8. Maintenance Requirements:

Submersible pumps are generally less maintainable and need more effort to service compared to above-ground pumps.

9. Specific Application Requirements:

Specific applications have unique requirements. For example, fire hydrant pumps must meet fire safety regulations and deliver high-pressure flow for firefighting purposes.

10. Budget Constraints:

The initial cost of the pump and the available budget can influence the choice of pump type. Due to the specialised design, submersible and fire hydrant pumps may have higher initial costs.

Summing Up

Dynamic pumps are the most popular type of pump, with many applications in almost every sector of society.

Dynamic pumps are widely used across various industries due to their simplicity, reliability, and ease of maintenance; they rely on principles of centrifugal force to move the fluid.

The 5 different types of dynamic pumps provide versatility and specialisation for each application they are intended to use. 

You must analyse your requirements very carefully before investing in any of the pumps available in the market. 

Bhuwan Bhatia

Bhuwan Bhatia

Bhuwan Bhatia, an engineering graduate with a diverse background, has been passionate about entrepreneurship since age 13. Founder of edtech startup Technoshaala, Bhuwan now focuses on leading his innovative water management startup, FLOTAA, in Kanpur to create sustainable solutions.
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