Types of Water

by | Oct 20, 2023

Types of Water Image

Do you ever wonder what kind of water Virat Kohli drinks? Or what exactly is the type of water that flows out of the springs in hill stations?

Different types of water have different applications and benefits associated with them. To be at the top of your health and thus life, you must know what kinds of water you consume.

We drink about 5 litres of water every day. For our awareness, it’s essential to know the quality and type of water we’re consuming.

Here is a detailed breakdown of different types of water to keep you hydrated in a healthy way:

1. Mineral Water:

Mineral water is a type of water obtained from specific groundwater sources. Many forms of water can be called mineral water. It contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium, salt, etc.

Historically, mineral water was consumed directly from ground sources like springs and wells. But today, mineral water is consumed with the help of water purifiers and packaged bottles.

Mineral water is clean and safe to drink. It is the only type of water that you should prefer while travelling. Thousands of reputed brands sell mineral water in a bottled form.

The plastic bottles in which widely available mineral water can become toxic if exposed to heat. Moreover, plastic bottles are a massive source of pollution.

2. Bottled Water:

Water intended for drinking purposes, packaged in plastic or glass bottles, is known as bottled water. It is available in a range of sizes according to different applications.

Vessels for the carriage of water have been around for eternity, but the first time that water was bottled was in 1602. Since then, the demand for bottled water has always been on the rise.

Today, almost every household around the world has plastic bottled water. It is of many types and is primarily safe for drinking. 

The plastic bottles can contaminate the water if exposed to heat and even cause cancer. Moreover, plastic bottles are a massive source of pollution.

3. Sparkling Water:

Sparkling water is generally classified as a type of mineral water. It can be considered a part of mainly all kinds of water.

Sparkling water is nothing but carbonated mineral water. Sparkling water was invented by accident in 1767 due to the infusion of carbon dioxide with water.

Commonly known as carbonated water or club soda, sparkling water has almost no harmful impact on health, even if consumed regularly. There is some evidence that carbonated water can help stroke patients.

However, sparkling water cannot quench thirst, so you can’t replace regular water with club soda!

4. Tap Water: 

Tap water is the water that we obtain from our taps and faucets. In most countries, tap water is unsuitable for drinking but can be used for other chores.

Generally, people use a water purifier to treat tap water before drinking it. 

Tap water is not fit for drinking in most countries because it requires much treatment and complex distribution.

Household water purification methods can be applied to tap water to make it fit for drinking. Some countries like Japan provide significant treatment and hygiene to their tap water to make it drinkable.

The government of Delhi made huge promises to make tap water drinkable. After years of effort, the new target set by the local municipal bodies and the government of Delhi doesn’t even talk about tap water quality!

5. Spring Water:

Springwater originates from natural springs. It flows to the surface from natural underground sources.

Spring water goes through a significant filtration process, clearing all its impurities. It is also free from preservatives, making it much more desirable for drinking.

But spring water is only sometimes clean. It may be contaminated sometimes, so checking its fitness before consumption is essential. Insufficient spring water can also have a negative environmental effect without care.

Spring water is generally three times costlier than packaged mineral water in most places in India!!

Virat Kohli imports his water from France, which costs INR 4,000 per litre. The Evian Natural Spring water is the purest natural spring water. The primary source of this water is Evian Les Bains, one of the largest lakes in Europe.

6. Well Water:

Well, water is an inseparable ingredient of village life. Many of you urban humans must have never seen well water. It is a significant source of water in the rural areas.

When it rains, water trickles down the soil and starts accumulating in underground reservoirs. This water is then retracted by digging a hole we understand as a well.

Earlier, well water used to be clean and mostly safe for drinking. However, acid rain and soil pollution in most places have made well water unsafe even for chores, forget drinking.

Historically, the worst pandemics were spread through well-water contamination. Presently, well water can only be used for irrigation purposes. It may also be treated, but in the small economy, it makes no sense.

7. Distilled Water:

Distilled water is water in its purest form. All the salts, chemicals, biological impurities, etc., are removed from water by boiling or distilling them.

Although distilled water is pure, it cannot be used for drinking regularly. It is void of certain essential minerals and nutrients for the human body to survive. Its regular consumption can lead to mineral deficiency.

It is expensive to produce distilled water, so apart from nutritional aspects, it also doesn’t make any economic sense to use it for drinking.

Distilled water is widely used for industrial purposes, especially in the chemical industry.

8. Hard Water:

Hard water is a chemically impure form of water. It contains salts of magnesium and calcium dissolved in it. There are two types of hardness in water: permanent and temporary.

Dissolved carbonates and bicarbonates of magnesium and calcium in water cause temporary hardness. It can be easily removed by boiling the water.

Dissolved sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and calcium in water cause permanent hardness. It has to be chemically treated to get rid of.

Hard water is widely considered safe for drinking but can cause skin and hair dryness. Other than that, no other problems are linked to the consumption of hard water.

9. Soft Water:

Soft Water is a type of water with a low concentration of calcium and magnesium dissolved in it is known as soft water.

Soft water occurs in places where calcium-deficient rocks are situated around water bodies. Soft water is also created by various treatments given to hard water.

Soft water is widely used for cleaning as it quickly gives a lather with soap.

Huge water softeners are installed in almost all housing societies and municipal water distribution centres in India. Soft water is also safe for drinking purposes.

10. Alkaline Water:

Alkaline water has a slightly higher pH than regular water. It is because of the presence of alkaline chemical compounds in it.

Alkaline water has a lot of health benefits. But most of its potential benefits have yet to be proven. Nonetheless, most studies show that alkaline benefits health if drunk regularly.

Alkaline water is scientifically safe for drinking and has no side effects. The body automatically adjusts to the increased pH by producing more hydrochloric acid.

Tata Copper water is a standard alkaline water available in India. It has a great taste accompanied by good properties of copper apart from its alkaline nature.

11. Lithia Water:

Lithia water is a type of water that contains Lithium salts. It is mostly artificial, but some natural sources of Lithia water do exist. The natural sources include springs in Jammu.

Lithia water has been commercially available since the 1880s. During that period, its demand was so high that multiple copies of the famous Lithia water brand were available in the American market.

Most of the commercially available Lithia water is artificially sourced. This is due to the need for more natural resources.

Lithia water has been an ancient Indian medicinal ingredient for thousands of years.

12. Salt Water:

Saltwater is the most abundant type of water on earth. It has a high quantity of sodium chloride dissolved in it.

All the oceans, seas and some lakes have salt water. The salt concentration is so high that it cannot be used to quench thirst. If consumed nonetheless, its high salt concentration would lead to certain death.

Saltwater can be desalinated to produce drinking water.

Many of the following countries desalinate salt water to quench the thirst of its populace:

  1. Saudi Arabia
  2. UAE
  3. Oman
  4. Kuwait
  5. Israel
  6. Algeria
  7. Australia

Desalination could be the answer to South India’s water crisis!!

13. Brackish Water:

Brackish water is saline water whose salty nature lies in the middle of freshwater and saltwater. It is usually found in transition areas of freshwater and seawater, such as river deltas.

Brackish water is also found in some ground sources. It is not suitable for drinking purposes, but it has a variety of other uses in industry and agriculture.

Sunderbans Delta in India, inhabited by the man-eater Royal Bengal Tiger, is a prime reservoir of brackish water.


Water’s something we often take for granted, right? But after diving deep into all these types, it’s clear that not all water is the same. For our families for our health, it really pays to know what we’re sipping on. So, next time you fill up your glass, take a moment to appreciate the story behind each drop. Let’s drink smart, stay safe, and keep looking out for each other. Cheers!

Bhuwan Bhatia

Bhuwan Bhatia

Bhuwan Bhatia, an engineering graduate with a diverse background, has been passionate about entrepreneurship since age 13. Founder of edtech startup Technoshaala, Bhuwan now focuses on leading his innovative water management startup, FLOTAA, in Kanpur to create sustainable solutions.
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